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Longitudinal strain by two-dimensional speckle tracking to assess ventricular function in adults with transposition of the great arteries: Can serial assessment be simplified?

Rev Port Cardiol. 2018 Aug 16;:

Authors: Timóteo AT, Branco LM, Rosa SA, Galrinho A, Sousa L, Oliveira JA, Pinto MF, Agapito AF, Ferreira RC

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a rare form of congenital heart disease in which most patients reach adulthood. Right ventricular dysfunction is the most severe residual complication in long-term follow-up, both in patients treated by atrial switch and in those with congenitally corrected TGA. New echocardiographic tools such as longitudinal strain by two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking may improve assessment of ventricular function in these patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective analysis of echocardiograms in adult patients with TGA (26 patients with dextro-TGA - 15 treated by atrial switch and six by arterial switch - and five with congenitally corrected TGA) and in a control group of 14 healthy individuals. Right ventricular strain was significantly worse (p<0.001), as was the corresponding annular plane systolic excursion (p=0.010) in atrial switch patients, in comparison to arterial switch patients, while no differences were found in left ventricular parameters. In the overall population, systemic right ventricular parameters were significantly less negative than pulmonary right ventricular parameters, and these were less negative than in controls. Left ventricular parameters were similar across groups, except for pulmonary left ventricular strain, which was worse than in controls (p=0.008) as well as pulmonary right ventricular strain.
CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of ventricular function in patients with TGA by 2D speckle tracking longitudinal strain is easy and feasible and may be a useful tool for serial follow-up. Of particular note, we found that there is also some degree of ventricular dysfunction even after re-establishment of normal connections.

PMID: 30122596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with Ebstein anomaly: insights from a retrospective cohort study.

J Thorac Dis. 2018 Jul;10(Suppl 18):S2172-S2175

Authors: Waldmann V, Khairy P

PMID: 30123552 [PubMed]

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Epidemiology of ACHD: What Has Changed and What Is Changing?

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Aug 17;:

Authors: Khan A, Gurvitz M

Abstract
The worldwide population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) has grown steadily over the last few decades, estimated at approximately 1.4 million people in 2010.(Gilboa et al., 20161) Innovations in surgical and medical treatment of children with congenital heart disease (CCHD) have dramatically improved survival, resulting in a growing population of ACHD patients with unique health needs.(Marelli et al., 2014; Khairy et al., 20102,3) This growth has significant implications for health care providers and health systems, which must adapt to meet the demands of caring for this complex population. Obtaining an accurate estimate of the population prevalence of ACHD is essential to define the population and to better advocate for resources to meet the needs of this group. While there is a general consensus that the prevalence of CCHD at birth is about 8 per 1000 live births, defining the prevalence in the adult population is a more challenging endeavor.4.

PMID: 30125582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Is Grown Up Congenital Heart (GUCH) disease different in a developing country?

J Pak Med Assoc. 2016 10;66(Suppl 3)(10):S5-S7

Authors: Shahabuddin S, Hashmi S, Rakhshan SE, Khan JK, Sami SA, Amanullah M

Abstract
In the current era grown up congenital heart disease (GUCH) patients undergoing surgical interventions are increasing. Most of the interventions in the developed countries are either complex or redo-operations in patients who had previously undergone repair, palliation or correction. However, in the developing countries most of the interventions are primary and corrective. This descriptive retrospective study comprised GUCH patients who underwent surgical intervention for congenital heart disease (CHD) at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2006 to December 2015. A total of 195 patients had been treated surgically with a mean age of 31.0±13.5 years. Majority of the patients underwent surgical interventions for closure of atrial 109(55.3%) and ventricular 51(26.2%) septal defect. The most common complications were prolonged ventilation 16(8.1%). Overall mortality was 4(2.1%). GUCH in our practice is for primary procedure with simple diagnosis that should have been treated before reaching adulthood as is done in the developed countries.

PMID: 27895340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Complex Congenital Heart Disease: Is Heart Transplantation an Option?

Transplant Proc. 2018 Mar;50(2):655-657

Authors: Esteve-Ruiz I, Grande-Trillo A, Rangel-Sousa D, Adsuar-Gómez A, Sobrino-Márquez M, Lage-Gallé E

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Within the heart transplant (HT) population, few patients have complex congenital heart disease (CHD) underlying disease. Our objective is to assess the complications and follow-up of patients with CHD transplanted in our center (1991-present).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients older than 14 years old with CHD and HT. Clinical and surgical variables were analyzed.
RESULTS: Ten patients (age 25 ± 7 years old, 60% male) were analyzed, which represents 2.2% of the entire series of HT; 9 of the 10 patients were electively transplanted and 1 was under support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Compared with the rest of the transplanted patients, patients with CHD had a lower median age (25 [25-36] vs 53 [15-69]; P < .009); more cardiac surgeries prior to HT (100% vs 14.4%; P < .001); a lower percentage of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF; 0% vs 60%; P < .001). The left ventricle ejection fraction also showed statistically significant differences (33.5 [12-67] vs 20 [6-70]).
CONCLUSIONS: Our patients with CHD and HT are younger and have less CVRF and more cardiac surgeries, which highlights that it is a subgroup with clear clinical differences in its comorbidity and pretransplantation assessment. They also require longer extracorporeal circulation time, more hours of intubation, and more days in the intensive care unit. Primary graft failure is more common in patients with CHD. Therefore, survival at 1-month follow-up is lower than the rest of the series and equalizes after the year of follow-up. This long-term survival reaffirms the possibility of HT in CHD despite the fact that its postoperative period is more difficult.

PMID: 29579880 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Bridge to Transplantation with Long-term Mechanical Assist Devices in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries.

Artif Organs. 2018 Aug 21;:

Authors: Michel E, Orozco Hernandez E, Enter D, Monge M, Nakano J, Rich J, Anderson A, Backer C, McCarthy P, Pham D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Prior to the widespread adoption of the arterial switch operation, patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) commonly underwent atrial switch operation (Mustard or Senning). It is not uncommon for these patients to progress to end stage heart failure and increasingly, ventricular assist devices (VADs) are used to support these patients as a bridge to transplantation, though there is limited experience with this worldwide.
METHODS: A retrospective review of our institution's VAD database was undertaken and revealed seven adult patients with a history of TGA and subsequent systemic ventricular failure were implanted with a VAD. Four of whom received the VAD as a bridge to transplantation (BTT) at the time of implantation, 2 who were initially designated as destination therapy secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension, and 1 who was designated as destination therapy secondary to a high risk of life threatening non-compliance.
RESULTS: Seven patient cases who received a VAD for severe systemic ventricular failure were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 40 years and the majority of patients were male (6/7, 85%). Five of the patients (71.4%) had previously undergone an atrial switch operation and all of these were Mustard procedures. Two of the seven patients (28.5%) had congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CC-TGA). Two of the seven patients (28.5%) had supra-systemic pulmonary pressures before VAD implantation and were designated as Destination Therapy (DT). One of these patients was later designated as BTT as an improvement in his pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, and subsequently underwent heart transplantation. Because of anatomic considerations, four of the patients (57%) underwent redo-sternotomy with outflow cannula anastomosis to the ascending aorta, 1 patient underwent VAD implantation via a left subcostal incision with anastomosis of the outflow graft to the descending thoracic aorta, and 2 patients (28.5%) underwent VAD implantation via a left thoracotomy and anastomosis of the outflow cannula to the descending thoracic aorta. Six of the seven patients had a HeartWare® HVAD VAD implanted; one received a Thoratec ® Heartmate II VAD. Two patients underwent VAD explant and orthotopic heart transplant, 222 days and 444 days after VAD implant, respectively. One patient died on post-operative day 17 after complications from recurrent VAD thrombosis despite multiple pump exchanges. Four patients remain on VAD support, three of these patients are awaiting transplantation at last follow-up (mean days on support, 513 days).
CONCLUSIONS: Bridge to transplantation with a durable VAD is technically feasible and relatively safe in patients with TGA. Multiple redo sternotomies can be avoided with a left posterior thoracotomy approach and outflow graft anastomosis to the descending thoracic aorta after careful anatomic considerations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30129258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Does Tetralogy of Fallot affect brain aging? A proof-of-concept study.

PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0202496

Authors: Codari M, Papini GDE, Melazzini L, Pluchinotta FR, Secchi F, Carminati M, Frigiola A, Chessa M, Sardanelli F

Abstract
The impact of congenital heart disease on brain aging has not been extensively investigated. We evaluated cerebral microbleeds and white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). Ten ToF patients (6 women, 4 men; aged 21-58 years; New York Heart Association [NYHA] class 1-2) were prospectively enrolled and underwent a T1-weighted, a T2-weighted dark fluid, and a T2*-weighted scans. Ten age- and sex-matched controls were prospectively recruited and subjected to the same acquisition protocol. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) were manually counted while white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were segmented using ITK-Snap. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation, and Bland-Altman statistics were used. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 45.0 (30.5-49.5) years in ToF patients and 46.0 (30.5-49.8) years in controls. The median (IQR) of the number of CMBs was 6.0 (4.0-7.8) in ToF patients and 0 (0.0-0.0) in controls (p = 0.002). The WMHs burden was 2,506 (1,557-2,900) mm3 for ToF patients and 2,212 (1,860-2,586) mm3 for controls (p = 0.160). Moreover, a positive significant correlation was found between the WMHs burden and the NYHA class (ρ = 0.80, p = 0.005). Inter-operator concordance rate for the presence/absence of CMBs was 90%; the reproducibility for the WMHs burden was 77%. In conclusion, we found more cerebral microbleeds and a higher WMHs burden in adult ToF patients than in controls. This preliminary comparison supports the hypothesis of an early brain aging in ToF patients. Larger studies are warranted.

PMID: 30130369 [PubMed - in process]

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Impact of maternal pulmonary insufficiency on fetal growth in pregnancy.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Aug 21;:1-151

Authors: Brun S, L'Ecuyer E, Dore A, Mongeon FP, Guedon AC, Leduc L

Abstract
RATIONALE: It is known that fetal growth is usually proportional to left-sided cardiac output (CO) which parallels the right-sided CO and that congenital right-sided lesions are usually associated with better perinatal outcomes than left-sided lesions.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to document whether newborns from mothers with severe residual pulmonary valve insufficiency (PI) after surgical tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or pulmonary stenosis (PS) correction have lower birth weight (BW) than newborns from mothers with absent, mild or moderate PI.
METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of women affected with repaired TOF and corrected PS with varied severity of residual PI. Exclusion criteria were: left ventricular dysfunction, left-sided valvular heart disease, other right-sided structural heart disease, chronic hypertension, substance addiction and incomplete follow-up. Pregnancies were divided into three groups: absent or mild PI, moderate PI and severe PI. A generalized linear model with normal dependent variable distribution was built as well as the parameter estimation made with Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE) in order to take into account repeated mother in data. Variables such as gestational age at birth, maternal age, smoking and body mass index were tested with bivariate analyses to assess their effect on BW. Only gestational age remained in the adjusted model.
RESULTS: A total of 45 patients were included (33 TOF and 12 PS) and 97 pregnancies were reported: 22 miscarriages (22.7%) (15 TOF, 7 PS) and 75 successful pregnancies (57 TOF, 18 PS). The patients were divided into three groups: 1) Absent or mild PI, 2) moderate PI and 3) severe PI groups which comprised respectively 29 (15 TOF, 4 PS), 20 (10 TOF, 1 PS) and 26 successful pregnancies (8 TOF, 7 PS). Using three levels of PI (absent or mild, moderate and severe), the unadjusted model showed a significant effect of level of PI on BW (p = 0.0118) as well as the adjusted model (p = 0.0263) with gestational age as covariate. The estimated mean newborn's BW was 3055.8 g in the severe PI group, 3151.0 g in the moderate PI group and 3376.4 g in the absent or mild group when adjusted for gestational age. Hence, we estimated that the mean newborn's BW is 321 g lower in the severe PI group compared to absent or mild PI group ((CI: 572.3; -68.9), p = 0.0087).
CONCLUSION: Pregnancy is usually well tolerated in repaired TOF and corrected PS. Severe PI either from repaired TOF or PS is at higher risk of lower newborn's BW. Special attention must be paid to the severity of PI. Fetal growth surveillance in the third trimester is warranted.

PMID: 30130989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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It Is Not Taboo: Addressing Sexual Function in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

Curr Cardiol Rep. 2018 Aug 22;20(10):93

Authors: Huang S, Cook SC

Abstract
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To review the current state of literature on sexual dysfunction in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD).
RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in ACHD is approximately 28%. Compared to age-matched cohorts, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among ACHD cohorts demonstrates significant variability. ACHD have a lower rate of ever having sexual intercourse and often at a later age. Regardless of complexity, ACHD with sexual dysfunction have higher level of distress, decreased quality of life, and worse New York Heart Association classification. Patients, including heart failure and ACHD, treated with dual angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor have reported improved sexual relationships. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in ACHD patients is high and sexual dysfunction research in ACHD remains limited. Therefore, the relationship between sexual dysfunction and ACHD remains ill-defined. Cardiologists that participate in the care of these patients should proactively discuss sexual health and provide counseling and therapies to provide high-quality healthcare for ACHD.

PMID: 30136003 [PubMed - in process]

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Right partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava following the Warden procedure.

J Card Surg. 2018 Aug 22;:

Authors: Pavy C, Gavira N, Maminirina P, Baron O

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Surgical repair of right partial pulmonary anomalous connection to the superior vena cava (SVC) with the Warden procedure can be complicated by SVC obstruction, pulmonary veins obstruction, and sinus node dysfunction. We review our 20 years of experience with Warden procedures for the repair of right partial pulmonary venous connection to the SVC.
METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study of all patients (pediatric and adult) with right partial pulmonary abnormal venous connections who underwent a complete repair with the Warden procedure between 1997 and 2016. A total of 59 patients were included. The median age was 14 years (5 months to 61 years) and the median weight was 44 kg (4.9-92 kg).
RESULTS: The mean term follow-up was 7 (±5) years. No deaths were reported. One (1.7%) patient required a pacemaker implantation; two (3.4%) suffered from a SVC stenosis successfully treated with balloon dilatation and stent implantation; and eight (13.6%) patients had transient rhythm disturbances, one had junctional ectopic tachycardia, three had sick sinus syndrome, three had an atrial flutter, and one had an atrioventricular block. None suffered from pulmonary vein obstruction.
CONCLUSION: The Warden procedure is safe and can be performed with very low morbidity, mortality, rhythm disturbances, and decreased pulmonary and SVC obstructions.

PMID: 30136412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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