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Adults with congenital heart disease during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: are they at risk?

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2020 Jun 30;:

Authors: Gallego P, Ruperti-Repilado FJ, Schwerzmann M

PMID: 32660909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Epidemiology and risk factors of infective endocarditis in a tertiary hospital in China from 2007 to 2016.

BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 18;20(1):428

Authors: Wu Z, Chen Y, Xiao T, Niu T, Shi Q, Xiao Y

BACKGROUND: To explore the trends in epidemiology and the risk factors related to the prognosis of infective endocarditis in a tertiary hospital over the past ten years.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed. A total of 407 consecutive patients who were admitted with infective endocarditis were included. The clinical characteristics and the risk factors related to the prognosis of infective endocarditis during this period were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 407 patients with infective endocarditis were included, the average age was 48 ± 16 years old with an increasing trend and in-hospital mortality rate was 10.6% and one-year mortality rate was 11.3%. Among patients with underlying heart disease, congenital heart disease was the most common (25.8%), followed by rheumatic heart disease (17.0%) which showed a decreased trend during this period (P < 0.001). There were 222(54.5%) patients with positive blood cultures results and Streptococci (24.6%) was the main pathogens with an increasing trend. There were 403 patients (99%) with surgical indications, but only 235 patients (57.7%) received surgical treatment. Hemodialysis (P = 0.041, OR = 4.697, 95% CI 1.068-20.665), pulmonary hypertension (P = 0.001, OR = 5.308, 95% CI 2.034-13.852), Pitt score ≥ 4 (P < 0.001, OR = 28.594, 95% CI 5.561-148.173) and vegetation length>30 mm (P = 0.011, OR = 13.754, 95% CI 1.832-103.250) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in the overall incidence of infective endocarditis, but the clinical features of infective endocarditis had slightly changed during the past ten years. Streptococci infective endocarditis was still the predominant. Patients with hemodialysis, pulmonary hypertension, Pitt score ≥ 4 and vegetation length>30 mm had an worse in-hospital outcome.

PMID: 32552765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Prolonged length of stay after surgery for adult congenital heart disease: a single-centre study in a developing country.

Cardiol Young. 2020 Jul 15;:1-8

Authors: Martins RS, Dawood ZS, Memon MKY, Akhtar S

BACKGROUND: With the growing number of adults requiring operations for CHD, prolonged length of stay adds an additional burden on healthcare systems, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to identify factors associated with prolonged length of stay in adult patients undergoing operations for CHD.
METHODS: This retrospective study included all adult patients (≥18 years) who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for their CHD from 2011 to 2016 at a tertiary-care private hospital in Pakistan. Prolonged length of stay was defined as hospital stay >75th percentile of the overall cohort (>8 days).
RESULTS: This study included 166 patients (53.6% males) with a mean age of 32.05 ± 12.11 years. Comorbid disease was present in 59.0% of patients. Most patients underwent atrial septal defect repair (42.2%). A total of 38 (22.9%) patients had a prolonged length of stay. Post-operative complications occurred in 38.6% of patients. Multivariable analysis showed that pre-operative body mass index (odds ratio: 0.779; 95% confidence interval: 0.620-0.980), intraoperative aortic cross-clamp time (odds ratio: 1.035; 95% confidence interval: 1.009-1.062), and post-operative acute kidney injury (odds ratio: 7.392; 95% confidence interval: 1.036-52.755) were associated with prolonged length of stay.
CONCLUSION: Predictors of prolonged length of stay include lower body mass index, longer aortic cross-clamp time, and development of post-operative acute kidney injury. Shorter operations, improved pre-operative nutritional optimisation, and timely management of post-operative complications could help prevent prolonged length of stay in patients undergoing operations for adult CHD.

PMID: 32666915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Early angiogenic proteins associated with high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 04 01;318(4):L644-L654

Authors: Arjaans S, Wagner BD, Mourani PM, Mandell EW, Poindexter BB, Berger RMF, Abman SH

Early pulmonary vascular disease in preterm infants is associated with the subsequent development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, mechanisms that contribute to or identify infants with increased susceptibility for BPD and/or PH are incompletely understood. Therefore, we tested if changes in circulating angiogenic peptides during the first week of life are associated with the later development of BPD and/or PH. We further sought to determine alternate peptides and related signaling pathways with the risk for BPD or PH. We prospectively enrolled infants with gestational age <34 wk and collected blood samples during their first week of life. BPD and PH were assessed at 36 wk postmenstrual age. Samples were assayed for each of the 1,121 peptides included in the SOMAscan scan technology, with subsequent pathway analysis. Of 102 infants in the study, 82 had BPD, and 13 had PH. Multiple angiogenic proteins (PF-4, VEGF121, ANG-1, bone morphogenetic protein 10 [BMP10], hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), ANG-2) were associated with the subsequent diagnosis of BPD; and FGF-19, PF-4, connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP)-III, and PDGF-AA levels were associated with BPD severity. Early increases in BMP10 was strongly associated with the late risk for BPD and PH. We found that early alterations of circulating angiogenic peptides and others were associated with the subsequent development of BPD. We further identified peptides that were associated with BPD severity and BPD-associated PH, including BMP10. We speculate that proteomic biomarkers during the first week of life may identify infants at risk for BPD and/or PH to enhance care and research.

PMID: 31967847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Cardiovascular outcomes of pregnancy in Turner syndrome.

Heart. 2020 Jul 15;:

Authors: Grewal J, Valente AM, Egbe AC, Wu FM, Krieger EV, Sybert VP, van Hagen IM, Beauchesne LM, Rodriguez FH, Broberg CS, John A, Bradley EA, Roos-Hesselink JW, AARCC Investigators

OBJECTIVES: Women with Turner syndrome (TS) are frequently counselled against pregnancy due to lack of data and unclear aortic dissection risk. However, with advances in fertility therapy, more women with TS are contemplating pregnancy. This study compared rates of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among: (1) pregnant and non-pregnant women with TS and (2) pregnant women with TS with/without structural heart disease.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis of pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant controls with TS (2005-2017) across 10 CV centres was done. Data were collected at initial evaluation in pregnancy and outcomes were assessed to 6 months postpartum. Adverse CV events were defined as CV death, aortic dissection/rupture and/or aortic intervention. Non-pregnant age-matched controls were followed over the same time period.
RESULTS: Sixty-eight pregnancies were included (60 women, mean age 33 years, 48% primigravid, 49% fertility therapy, 80% structurally normal heart, 25% XO karyotype). Based on American Society of Reproductive Medicine criteria, 10 pregnancies occurred in women stratified to high-risk category. There were no CV events in the pregnant women or in the non-pregnant women with TS. Obstetric events complicated 12 (18%) pregnancies with 9 (13%) attributed to hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Fetal events included small for gestational age neonates (18%), preterm delivery (15%) and fetal death (3%).
CONCLUSIONS: This study helps to refine the approach to pregnancy in women with TS. Among women with TS without structural heart disease, pregnancy does not impose an increased risk of CV outcomes. Among women with TS with structural heart disease, the risk of pregnancy is not as prohibitive as previously described but does require ongoing evaluation.

PMID: 32669396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Implantable cardiac devices in adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

Scand Cardiovasc J. 2020 Jul 16;:1-7

Authors: Sandström A, Rinnström D, Kesek M, Thilén U, Dellborg M, Sörensson P, Nielsen NE, Christersson C, Johansson B

OBJECTIVES: Implantable cardiac devices are common in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) (18.3-21.3%) according to previous reports from large centres. We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and incidence of cardiac devices in a less selected population of patients with ToF and assess factors other than arrhythmia associated with having a device. Design: 530 adult (≥18 years) patients with repaired ToF were identified in the national registry of congenital heart disease (SWEDCON) and matched with data from the Swedish pacemaker registry. Patients with implantable cardiac devices were compared with patients without devices. Results: Seventy-five patients (14.2%) had a device; 51 (9.6%) had a pacemaker and 24 (4.5%) had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The incidence in adult age (≥18 years) was 5.9/1000 patient years. Estimated device free survival was 97.5% at twenty, 87.2% at forty and 63.5% at sixty years of age. Compared with previous studies, the prevalence of devices was lower, especially for ICD. In multivariate logistic regression, cardiovascular medication (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-6.8), impaired left ventricular function, (OR 2.6, 95%CI 1.3-5.0) and age (OR 1.02, 95%CI 1.002-1.05) were associated with having a device. Conclusion: The prevalence of devices in our population, representing a multicenter register cohort, was lower than previously reported, especially regarding ICD. This can be due to differences in treatment traditions with regard to ICD in this population, but it may also be that previous studies have reported selected patients with more severe disease.

PMID: 32672076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Determinants of Survival in Older Adults With Congenital Heart Disease Newly Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

Circ Heart Fail. 2020 Jul 16;:CIRCHEARTFAILURE119006490

Authors: Wang F, Liu A, Brophy JM, Cohen S, Abrahamowicz M, Paradis G, Marelli A

BACKGROUND: Nearly 90% of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) die after the age of 40 years, and heart failure (HF) is the most common cause of death. We aimed to characterize the association between an incident HF hospitalization (HFH) and mortality and to identify the predictors of 1-year postdischarge mortality after incident and repeated HFHs, respectively.
METHODS: Patients with ACHD aged ≥40 years between 2000 and 2010 were identified from the Québec CHD database. We conducted a propensity score-matched study to explore the association between an incident HFH and mortality. We performed Bayesian model averaging to identify the predictors of 1-year postdischarge mortality with a posterior probability ≥50% considered to be evidence of a significant association.
RESULTS: The mortality hazard ratio was high at 6.01 (95% CI, 4.02-10.72) within 1-year postdischarge, decreasing significantly but entering an elevated equilibrium until year 4 with a continued 3-fold increase in death. Kidney dysfunction (hazard ratio, 2.28 [95% credible interval, 1.59-3.28], posterior probability, 100.0%) and a history of ≥2 HFHs in the past 12 months (hazard ratio, 1.77 [95% credible interval, 1.18-2.66], posterior probability: 82.2%) were the most robust predictors of 1-year mortality after incident and repeated HFHs, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACHD aged ≥40 years, incident HFH was associated with high mortality risk at 1 year, declining but remaining elevated for 4 years. Kidney dysfunction was a potent predictor of 1-year mortality risk after incident HFHs. Repeated HFHs further increased mortality risk. These observations should inform early risk-tailored health services interventions for monitoring and prevention of HF and its associated complications in older patients with ACHD.

PMID: 32673500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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A case report of late-onset symptoms of erythrocytosis in univentricular dextrocardia.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Jul 02;99(27):e21092

Authors: Shen L, Zhao J, Yuan T, Li M, Cheng Y

RATIONALE: Univentricular dextrocardia is a rare congenital heart disease that usually presents cyanotic manifestations from childhood. Due to the sustained dysfunction of blood oxygenation, it is very difficult to keep an asymptomatic survival. Herein, we described an interesting case of univentricular dextrocardia who suffered from initial symptoms in his middle age.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old male patient with numbness and tingling of limbs was admitted to hospital due to the secondary manifestations of congenital heart disease.
DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed as univentricular dextrocardia with pulmonary hypertension and secondary erythrocytosis based on computed tomography (CT) scan, echocardiography, and laboratory examinations.
INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous hydration therapy with normal saline successfully eliminated his hyperviscosity associated symptoms. In view of socio-economic reasons, this patient refused surgical evaluation and further medical interventions.
OUTCOMES: During 18-month follow up, he received no drug except for regular water intake. Fortunately, his life quality was satisfactory, and no other symptoms emerged except for mild numbness of limbs.
LESSONS: In univentricular dextrocardia, it is possible to keep a long-term asymptomatic period due to the slow progress of pathophysiology. In this population, regular cardiac function evaluation and avoiding dehydration may help improve the quality of life.

PMID: 32629741 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Immediate outcome following valve surgery for rheumatic heart disease: the first local experience from Ethiopia.

Cardiol Young. 2020 Jul 17;:1-7

Authors: Debel FA, Zekarias B, Centella T, Tekleab AM

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cardiac diseases in developing countries including Ethiopia. The current study aimed to describe the immediate surgical outcome following valve surgery for rheumatic heart disease in Ethiopia.
METHODS: Data were collected through chart abstraction from two centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: the Cardiac Center of Ethiopia and El Ouzier cardiac centre. Included were all patients who were operated for rheumatic valvular heart disease in the mentioned centres by local cardiac surgical team during the period from June 2017 to April 2020. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population at admission and within 30 days of the index cardiac surgery were collected. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 for windows was used to analyse the data.
RESULT: Of the 114 patients included in the study (median age 31 years with interquartile range of 23-40), 62 (54.4%) of them were female. Surgical procedures done were triple valve surgery 9 (7.9%) patients, mitral and tricuspid valves 26 (22.8%) patients, double-valve 16 (14.0%) patients, single-valve surgery 50.9% (11 aortic and 47 mitral valves) of patients, redo mitral valve surgery 3 (2.6%) patients, and left maze with mitral valve surgery 2 (1.8%) patients. Of the total, 103 (90.4%) of them had mitral valve surgery. Post-operatively, 5 (4.4%) patients died within 30 days following the index surgery.
CONCLUSION: Immediate surgical outcome following valve surgery for rheumatic heart disease had excellent outcome in our setting. This evidence can be taken as a show of success in building local capacity to manage rheumatic heart disease surgically.

PMID: 32677594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Patent foramen ovale closure in children without cardiopathy: Child-PFO study.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2020 Jul 14;:

Authors: Miton N, Godart F, Milani G, Jalal Z, Karsenty C, Baruteau AE, Gronier C, Aldebert P, Douchin S, Lucron H, Chalard A, Houeijeh A, Petit J, Hascoet S, Thambo JB, Dauphin C

BACKGROUND: Closure of patent foramen ovale is well-managed in adults, but is performed less frequently in children.
AIM: To analyse all patent foramen ovale closures performed in the past 20 years in French paediatric centres.
METHODS: Retrospective study of patent foramen ovale closures in children without cardiopathy in nine centres between 2000 and 2019.
RESULTS: Forty-one procedures were carried out in children (median age: 14.9 years). Thirty-one patent foramen ovales were closed after a transient ischaemic attack or stroke, six for a left-to-right shunt and four for other reasons. Transthoracic echocardiography was used for 72.2% of the diagnoses and transoesophageal echocardiography for 27.8%. A substantial degree of shunting was found in 42.9% of patients and an atrial septal aneurysm in 56.2%. General anaesthesia with transoesophageal echocardiography guidance was performed in 68.3% of the procedures; local anaesthesia and transthoracic echocardiography or intracardiac echocardiography was performed in 31.7%. The success rate was 100%. The median fluoroscopy time was 4.14minutes: 3.55minutes with transoesophageal echocardiography; and 4.38minutes with transthoracic echocardiography (P=0.67). There was only one periprocedural complication (2.4%). Postoperatively, 80,5% of patients were treated with aspirin and 12,2% with an anticoagulant. The rate of complete occlusion was 56.8% immediately after the procedure, 68.6% at 1 year and 92.3% at the last follow-up. There were no delayed complications or cases of recurrent stroke during follow-up (median follow-up: 568 days).
CONCLUSION: Closure of patent foramen ovale in children appears to be safe and effective, as we noted a low rate of immediate complications, no delayed complications and no stroke recurrence in this indication.

PMID: 32680737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]